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 A. Health-related components of Physical Fitness. There are five components of
physical fitness:

 (1) body composition, 

(2) flexibility, 

(3) muscular strength, 

muscular endurance, and 

(5) cardiorespiratory endurance. 

A well-balanced exercise
program should include activities that address all of the health-related components of
fitness. Aerobic activities develop cardiorespiratory endurance and burn calories to
aid in achieving a healthy body composition. Muscle-strengthening activities
develop muscular strength and endurance and assist with the development of a
healthy body composition. Activities such as stretching and yoga help improve
flexibility. Physical activity guidelines for adults are presented below.

 B. Aerobic Activities. 

1. According to the Centers for Disease Control, adults should perform 2 hours and
30 minutes (150 minutes) per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity OR 1
hour and 15 minutes (75 minutes) per week of vigorous-intensity OR an
equivalent mix of both.

 2. Aerobic activity should be performed for at least 10 minutes at a time and spread
throughout the week. 

3. For greater health benefits, 5 hours (300 minutes) per week at a moderateintensity level or 2 hours and 30 minutes (150 minutes) at a vigorous-intensity
level or an equivalent mix of both is recommended. 

4. The American College of Sports Medicine states that moderate-intensity physical
activity between 150-250 minutes per week is effective in preventing weight gain,
but will provide only modest weight loss. Physical activity greater than 250
minutes per week is recommended for weight loss and the prevention of weight
a. Examples of moderate-intensity physical activities. 

(1) Walking briskly (about 3 miles per hour or faster but not race walking). 

(2) Water aerobics. 

(3) Bicycling, riding less than 10 mph.

 (4) Tennis (doubles). 

(5) Ballroom dancing. 

(6) General gardening.
b. Examples of vigorous-intensity physical activities.

 (1) Race walking, jogging, and running. 

(2) Bicycling 10 mph or faster. 

(3) Swimming laps.

 (4) Aerobic dancing. 

(5) Jumping rope.

(6) Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing with heart rate

(7) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack.
c. Muscle-Strengthening Activities.

 (1) Muscle-strengthening activities should be performed on 2 or more days
per week. 

(2) Muscle-strengthening activities do not count toward the aerobic activity

 (3) All major muscle groups should be worked. These are the legs, hips,
back, abdomen, chest, shoulders, and arms. 

(4) Exercises for each muscle group should be repeated 8 to 12 times per
set. As exercises become easier, increase the weight or do another set. 

(5) Examples: Lifting weights, working with resistance bands, or doing
exercises that use body weight for resistance (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups,
d. Flexibility.

 (1) Each time you perform aerobic or strength-training activities, take an
extra 10 minutes to stretch the major muscle groups. 

(2) Hold stretches for 10 to 30 seconds and repeat each stretch 3 to 4 times.

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